Words Instruct, Illustrations Lead: The National Question after the October Revolution

  • Tomaž Ivešić European University Institute, Department of History and Civilization
Keywords: nationalism, communism, Korenizatsiya, national question, Bolsheviks

Abstract

The paper focuses on the development of Marxist-Leninist views on the phenomenon of nationalism and on the evolution of nations. The germs of the idea of a socialist nationality can be found already before WWI. After the October Revolution, the Stalinist practice of solving the national question was marked by the process of Korenizatsiya: the Bolsheviks emphasised the nationalities in the Soviet Union, hoping that this would accelerate the transition to socialism. This policy was likewise adopted in Yugoslavia during and immediately after WWII.

References

AKTÜRK, S. (2012): Regimes of Ethnicity and Nationhood in Germany, Russia, and Turkey, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

BAIBURIN, A. (2012): “Rituals of Identity: The Soviet Passport.” v: Soviet and Post-Soviet Identities, ur. Mark Bassin in Catriona Kelly, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 91–109.

BALIBAR, E., WALLERSTEIN, I. M. (1991): Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities, London; New York: Verso.

BRANDENBERGER, D. (2002): National Bolshevism: Stalinist Mass Culture and the Formation of Modern Russian National Identity, 1931–1956, Cambridge, MA; London, Harvard University Press.

BURKE, P. (1993): Revolucija v francoskem zgodovinopisju: Anali 1929–89, Ljubljana, Studia Humanitatis.

CONNOR, W. (1984): The National Question in Marxist-Leninist Theory and Strategy, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

FIGES, O. (1997): A People's Tragedy: The History of the Russian Revolution, New York, Viking.

GABRIČ, A. (1995): “Leto 1945 in slovenska kultura”, v: Slovenija v letu 1945: Zbornik referatov, ur. Aleš Gabrič, Ljubljana, Zveza zgodovinskih društev Slovenije, 155–170.

HIRSCH, F. (2005): Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge & the Making of the Soviet Union, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

IVEŠIĆ, T. (2016): Jugoslovanska socialistična nacija: Ideja in realizacija (1952–1958), Nova Gorica, Univerza v Novi Gorici.

KARDELJ, E. (1957): Razvoj slovenskega narodnega vprašanja (druga, pregledana in dopolnjena izdaja), Ljubljana, DZS.

KEMP, W. A. (1999): Nationalism and Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, London, Palgrave Macmillan.

MARTIN, T. (2001): The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939, Ithaca; London, Cornell University Press.

MARX, K., ENGELS, F. (1950): "Izbrana dela", Zvezek I., Ljubljana, Cankarjeva založba.

MEVIUS, M. (2005): Agents of Moscow: The Hungarian Communist Party and the Origins of Socialist Patriotism 1941–1953, Oxford; New York, Clarendon Press.

MEVIUS, M. (2009): “Reappraising Communism and Nationalism.”, v: Nationalities Papers, letnik 37, št. 4, 377–400.

NAJBAR-AGIČIĆ, M. (2013): U skladu s marksizmom ili činjenicama?: Hrvatska historiografija 1945–1960, Zagreb, Ibis grafika.

NIMNI, E. (1989): “Marx, Engels and the National Question.”, v: Science & Society, letnik 53, no. 3, 297–326.

PETRANOVIĆ, B., ZEČEVIĆ, M. (1988): Jugoslavija: 1918–1988: tematska zbirka dokumenata, Beograd, Rad.

POPOVICI, A. (1906): Die Vereinigten Staaten von Gross-Österreich: politische Studien zur Lösung der nationalen Fragen und Staatsrechtlichen Krisen in Österreich-Ungarn, Leipzig, B. Elischer nachfolger.

REE, E. van. (20017): The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: A Study in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism, London: RoutledgeCurzon.

SLEZKINE, Y. (1994): “The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism”, v: Slavic Review, letnik 53, št. 2, 414–452.

SMITH, J. (1999): The Bolsheviks and the national Question, 1917–23, London, Macmillan.

STALIN, J. V. (1975): Marxism and the National Question, San Francisco, Proletarian Publishers.

SUNY, R. G. (1993): The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union, Stanford, Stanford University Press.

SZPORLUK, R. (1988): Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx Versus Friedrich List, Oxford; New York, Oxford University Press.

TIMASHEFF, N. S. (1946): The Great Retreat; the Growth and Decline of Communism in Russia, New York, E.P. Dutton & Co.

VODUŠEK STARIČ, J. (2007): Kako su komunisti osvojili vlast: 1944–1946, Zagreb, Naklada Pavičić.

ZVEZA KOMUNISTOV JUGOSLAVIJE (1958): VII. Kongres Saveza komunista Jugoslavije: Ljubljana 22,–26. aprila 1958 (stenografske beleške), Beograd, Kultura.

WEINBERG, R. (1998): Stalin's forgotten Zion: Birobidzhan and the making of a Soviet Jewish homeland : an illustrated history, 1928- 1996, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Published
2018-06-13
How to Cite
Ivešić, T. (2018). Words Instruct, Illustrations Lead: The National Question after the October Revolution. Monitor ISH, 20(1), 33-49. https://doi.org/10.33700/1580-7118.20.1.33-49(2018)
Section
Original scientific article